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Thursday, June 28, 2007

Malaysia




地理历史 : (MALAYSIA)

面积32.9万平公里。位于东南亚,全境被南中国海分成东马来西亚和西马来西亚两部分。西马来西亚为马来亚地区,位于马来半岛南部,北与泰国接壤,西濒马六甲海峡,东临南中国海,东马来西亚为砂拉越地区和沙巴地区的合称,位于加里曼丹岛北部。海岸线部长4192公里。




属热带雨林气候,内陆山区年均气温22℃--28℃,沿海平原为25℃--30℃。
人口:2452.2万(2002年统计数字)。




其中马来人及其他原住民占66.1% ,

华人占25.3% ,

印度人占7.3%。

砂拉越州原住居民中以伊班族为主,沙巴州以卡达山族为主。

马来语为国语,通用英语,华语使用也较广泛。
伊斯兰教为国教,其他宗教有佛教、兴都教和基督教等。
首都吉隆坡(kuala Lumpur)

人口约150 万。

联邦政府行政中心:布特拉再也(Putrajaya )位於吉隆坡以南35公里处,首相署及部分政府工作人员于1999年6 月迁入,2005年前搬迁完毕;人口约7000。

简史:

公元初马来半岛建立了羯荼、狼牙修等古国。15世纪初以马六甲为中心的满刺加王国统一了马来半岛的大部分,并发展成当时东南亚主要国际贸易中心。16世纪起先后遭到葡萄牙、荷兰和英国侵略。1911年沦为英国殖民地。砂拉越、沙巴历史上属汶莱,1888年两地沦为英国保护国。二次大战期间,马来亚、砂拉越、沙巴被日本占领。战后英国恢复其殖民统治。1957年8月31日马来亚联合邦从英联邦独立。1963年9月16日,马来亚联合邦和新加坡、砂拉越、沙巴合并组成马来西亚(1965年8月9日新加坡宣布退出)。

行政区划:全国分为13个州,
西马:

柔佛(johor)、吉打(KEDAH)、吉兰丹(Kelantan)、马六甲melaka、森美兰negeri sembilan、彭亨pahang、槟城penang、霹雳perak、玻璃市perlis、雪兰莪selangor丁加奴

东马:
沙巴sabah、砂拉越sarawak,另外还有三个联邦直辖区,即是首都吉隆坡kuala lumpur、纳闽labuan和布特拉再也(Putrajaya,联邦政府行政中心)。

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